The XXI Century appears as China’s Century, with many consequences. During the seven decades since the foundation of PRC, many changes occurred. Nowadays under the guide of Xi Jinping, whose though has been included in the Constitution in 2018, China knows a new transformation with the full consciousness of being one of the most potent worldwide rulers, with a strong tradition, preserved by a recent revival of Confucianism. “One belt, one road initiative” (一 帶一路) is part of this transformation. It represents not only an infrastructure plan but also the ambitions of Chinese leaders to increase the role they want to play with the US and in the EU. Under this framework, the paper aims to analyse the most profound changes during Xi’s Era with a specifi c focus on the current relationship between European Countries (Italy in particular) and PRC.